Analogue oscilloscope with cathode ray tube

This is an instrument for "qualitative analysis" which can be used to view the waveform of a periodic electrical signal as a function of time.


Choosing your analogue oscilloscope




1/ Vertical deflection
Deflection coefficient : 
This defines the minimum amplitude (sensitivity) and maximum amplitude values accepted by the input Y.
Bandwidth (BW)
This is the maximum admissible frequency range for the oscilloscope (MHz).

Rise time (rt)
For a square signal (steep edges), this is the time necessary for the rising edge to pass from 10 % to 90 % of the "peak to peak" amplitude. 
2/ Horizontal deflection
Time base (TB) :
It is the oscilloscope's circuits which control the screen sweep. The choice of the "time base coefficient" enables the signals to be displayed over an appropriate duration.
Alternate or Chop display :
Multiplexing of the channels allows display of several channels, Y1, Y2, … Y4, with a single electron beam. In alternate mode, each of the traces performs a complete sweep of the screen, alternately. For slow speeds, portions of the trace to be displayed during a given screen sweep are cut up: chop mode.
Deflection coefficient :
This defines the minimum amplitude (sensitivity) and maximum amplitude values accepted by the input Y.
This is a circuit which authorizes the horizontal sweep and determines the signal's starting point. The "trigger level" is the voltage level which must be reached by the signal observed in order to sweep. Alternate triggering provides stable display of the traces in all cases.
XY function
This is a function which allows display of one channel (Y1) as a function of another channel (Y2) on screen; the time base is then inoperative.
Choosing your digital oscilloscope
This is an instrument which allows users to view, as a function of time, the waveform of a periodic electrical signal or a single event. because it is based on digital processing, it allows storage of the signals and automatic measurements and transfer of the data onto a PC.
Sampling frequency (or rate)
This is the reciprocal of the sampling interval and it is expressed in MegaSamples per second (MS/s). It varies according to the sweep speed. According to Shannon's theorem, for a pure sinusoidal signal, this frequency must be at least twice the frequency of the signal to be observed. In practice, the oscilloscope must sample at a frequency at least 10 times the presumed frequency of the signal. The "useful bandwidth" will be one tenth of the maximum sampling frequency and will be expressed in MegaHertz.

Sampling modes
For "real-time" or "one-shot" sampling, all the samples are acquired in a single sweep. "Equivalent time" sampling can be used to achieve higher "sampling frequencies" because the samples are acquired in several successive sweeps. This mode is reserved for periodic signals.

Deflection coefficient
This defines the minimum amplitude (sensitivity) and maximum amplitude values accepted by the input Y.

Memory depth
This is expressed in kilo points (kpoints). It determines the "recording duration" according to the sweep speed; the larger it is, the longer the recording duration. Conversely, an instrument with ten times more memory capacity can sample 10 times quicker for the same recording duration.

Vertical resolution
"Quantification" involves converting the value of a sample into a binary number. The vertical resolution is defined by the capacity in bits of the Analogue/ Digital Converter (ADC). It is 1/256 or 0.4 % for an
8-bit ADC (28 = 256).

Signal processing
This involves very useful mathematical operations between signals: +, -, *, and even complex functions (Fourier transform or FFT, harmonic analysis, etc.).
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